Polity of Literature

This project of ArtsEverywhere was developed in response to the widespread failure of nation-states to provide citizenship for those who need it most. Across the globe, in myriad differing circumstances, oppressed ethnic and religious groups, poor people, economic migrants, and those displaced by war find themselves unwelcome in both the nations they come from and the nations to which they flee. Borders are closing. Those crossing them are criminalized. The human need for inclusion and rights inside a jurisprudence that casts us all as equals goes unmet. At the same time, within the borders of nation-states, growing numbers of similarly disadvantaged people lose their rights as citizens every day, when they’re arrested and imprisoned.

Despite the infinite variety of these lives, their unique backgrounds and possible futures, the state’s response has become uniform—to withhold citizenship and the rights that go with it. As Hannah Arendt commented when facing her own statelessness, “The calamity of the rightless is not that they are deprived of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, or of equality before the law and freedom of opinion—formulas which were designed to solve problems within given communities—but that they no longer belong to any community whatsoever.” Rejected by the state, the displaced today fall back on the communities that have survived their long journeys and hardships, and, with them, shape what is called a “profane citizenship,” independent of nations.

As the project’s opening essay, “Potatoes or Rice?“, observes, “Dehumanized, often by the state, no one simply stops being human—they find profane sites for their humanity, a realm for their politics that their enemies cannot destroy. Often it’s in their religion, their family, gangs, a neighborhood, or a declaration of war. In my case it was in literature.” The author is an American novelist, exiled in the Netherlands, who is prevented from returning to the U.S. by an unlawful indictment that threatens his human rights. His essay functions as our starting point for examining the ways that literature—the political space of writing and reading—can host the gathering of equals that Hannah Arendt calls a “polity,” and grant agency and belonging to the stateless, incarcerated, or displaced.

“Potatoes or Rice?” concludes with a series of questions that ArtsEverywhere will pursue as the project unfolds: “What keeps the polity of literature alive? Lacking the robust physical immediacy that is so useful for politics, what will help literature fully host its contentious plurality of readers and writers? How can we keep the discourse open and ensure that power never congeals in the hands of this-or-that few? How can we leave behind our inequalities—the differences that we are born with—so that they never become credentials for the right to be heard? How can we bring the faces and voices of those in this plurality into view, even in a disembodied realm? How can our bodies—and our lived, collective “activity of thinking”—come fully into literature? And, how can we extend the reach of this polity? Can our literary selves become legible within legal systems or state bureaucracies? Will the stories that we tell person-to-person regain their power despite digital policing? Can literature’s “truth” be aligned with, or become part of a broader community of truths, as in story-telling cultures or indigenous traditions of “circle convening” justice? How will the world rush back in to find us, and recognize our citizenship in the stories that we share, in how we read and write?”

“The Polity of Literature” proposed in “Potatoes or Rice?” is both a lived experience and a bold provocation, a thing so unlikely-seeming it jars our sense of the possible. ArtsEverywhere hopes to inspect both of these aspects—documenting the quotidian encounters that stateless people have with the political space of reading and writing, while also reaching for an impossible imaginary, a vision that jumps the narrow track of pragmatism to make us think and take action in the realm of the unknown—and change our collective future.

Matthew Stadler
Editor of The Polity of Literature

Refugee on Trial: The Hole in the Donut

Niels Bekkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands 
Illustrations: Ken Krimstein, Chicago, United States 

The eleventh piece in our Polity of Literature series: Concluding our trilogy about “the hole in the donut”—that rule-bound space within which our readings of others can have shared, verifiable legitimacy (see PoL #10 and Addendum to PoL #10)—Dutch artist and writer Niels Bekkema looks at the different kinds of...

How the State Reads Queer Refugees

Lotte Wolff, Geneva, Switzerland 
Illustrations: Ken Krimstein, Chicago, United States 

Addendum to the tenth piece in our Polity of Literature series: In Ralph Severijns’ analysis of the state’s reading of refugee stories—that is, in the crucial “free narrative” that asylum seekers tell when they apply for asylum—some problematic stories come up (see PoL #10, “Refugees Tell Their Stories to the...

Refugees Tell Their Stories to the State

Ralph Severijns, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 
Illustrations: Ken Krimstein, Chicago, United States 
Translation: Niels Bekkema,  

The tenth piece in our Polity of Literature series: All refugees have a story, often an incredible one, of the events that led them to flee their homes and seek safety in a foreign land. When they arrive—if they ever arrive—somewhere safe, that story will determine their future. Asylum is...

Translating Manus and Nauru: Refugee Writing

Moones Mansoubi, Sydney, Australia 
Illustrations: Ken Krimstein, Chicago, United States 

The ninth piece in our Polity of Literature series: From 2014 until 2018, Iranian-Australian translator, Moones Mansoubi, worked with asylum seekers imprisoned in Australia’s “Offshore Processing Centres” on Manus and Nauru islands. The inhumane conditions of detention on Manus and Nauru were documented in official reports (Amnesty International‘s 2016, “Island of...

Prison Books in the Time of Refugees

Matthew Stadler, Rotterdam, The Netherlands 
Illustrations: Ken Krimstein, Chicago, United States 

The eighth piece in our Polity of Literature series: Books cited in this essay: Plato, Crito and Phaedo Boethius, The Consolation of Philosophy Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, The Relation of Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Mary White Rowlandson, Narrative of the Captivity of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson Hugo Grotius, Commentary...

If They Come in the Morning — Writing from Prison with Angela Davis

Bettina Aptheker, Santa Cruz, United States 
Illustrations: Ken Krimstein, Chicago, United States 

The seventh piece in our Polity of Literature series: In 1970, at the height of violent conflict between the U.S. government and oppressed communities across the country—mostly poor, mostly people of colour—the FBI arrested Angela Davis on false charges of attempted murder. A student of Herbert Marcuse, Davis was an...

The Zines of Terezín

Matthew Stadler, Rotterdam, The Netherlands 
Illustrations: Ken Krimstein, Chicago, United States 

The sixth piece in our Polity of Literature series: Terezín was a purpose-built ghetto the Nazis used as a smokescreen for genocide. 33,000 Jews died there and another 88,000 were sent on to the death camps. More than 7,000 of them were children, many of whom lived apart from their...

The American Prison Writing Archive

Duygu Erbil, Utrecht, the Netherlands 
Illustrations: Ken Krimstein, Chicago, United States 

The fifth piece in our Polity of Literature series: In prison, writing takes on new forms and new urgencies. Prisoners who never wrote before, or wrote very little, produce new work in innovative ways, writing their ways around the limits and prohibitions that prisons impose. Duygu Erbil, a scholar in...

“Reading 1984 [in prison] was a big mistake…”

Marta Bausells, London, UK 
Illustrations: Ken Krimstein, Chicago, United States 

The fourth piece in our Polity of Literature series: Prisons in most nations have libraries, though that service has radically changed in the last five years as budgets are cut and states shift to eBook readers (where contents can be changed or deleted and the reader’s activity can be monitored)....

Biz. Alive at the Gezi Park trial.

Simon(e) van Saarloos, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 
Illustrations: Ken Krimstein, Chicago, United States 

The third piece in our Polity of Literature series: At the Gezi Park trials in Turkey, sixteen people are charged with “threatening to overthrow the state” for actions they took in 2013, protesting the proposed closing of Gezi Park, a unique public green space in the heart of Istanbul. They...

Ahmet Altan: The Writer’s Paradox

Ahmet Altan, Istanbul, Turkey 

The second piece in our Polity of Literature series: The second installment of ArtsEverywhere’s “The Polity of Literature” project is an essay entitled “The Writer’s Paradox” by the internationally acclaimed Turkish novelist, journalist and editor Ahmet Altan. Smuggled out of prison, “The Writer’s Paradox” is an entry from the book...

Potatoes or Rice?

Anonymous,  

The first piece in our Polity of Literature series: “Dehumanized, often by the state, no one simply stops being human—they find profane sites for their humanity, a realm for their politics that their enemies cannot destroy. Often it’s in their religion, their family, gangs, a neighborhood, or a declaration of...